Board of Regents

Resources - 2003-04 Regent Study

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Aitken, Don. (2002). "Reinventing Universities in Australia." The University: International Expectations.
Summary: Reinvention of universities is a natural process. "What is essential is for the present generation of university staff to capture the spirit of their university, its sense of its own purpose, and character, and virtue, and reinvent all that for the future."

Alexander, F. King and Ronald G. Ehrenberg. (2003 Fall). "Maximizing Revenue in Higher Education." New Directions for Institutional Research: Josey-Bass, San Francisco CA.
Summary: "This volume …presents edited versions of some of the best articles form a forum on institutional revenue generations sponsored by the Cornell Higher Education Research Institute. The chapters provide different perspectives on revenue generation and how institutions are struggling to find an appropriate balance between meeting public expectations and maximizing private market forces."

American Association of State Colleges and Universities. (2003). AASCU's State Issues Digest .
Summary: Survey of campuses facing challenges including shrinking budgets, climbing enrollments, and rising student and policymaker expectations.

American Association of State Colleges and Universities. (2003 May 23) State Budget and Tuition Update . Washington, D.C.
Summary: Current events on state budget and tuition issues nationwide.

American Association of State Colleges and Universities. (2002 September). State Fiscal Conditions.
Summary: "An economic downturn has brought a significant drop in state revenue collections, which in turn has prompted many state to pare back funding for their colleges and universities to near zero growth for the current fiscal year."

Andersen, Shea. (2003 June 1). New Mexico Thinkers Join Forces to turn research into Jobs. Albuquerque Tribune.
Summary: Hoping to burnish New Mexico's image as the Silicon Mesa, the state's 2 research institutions have banded together to form the Technology Research Corridor in New Mexico.

Anez, Bob. (2003). Regents eyeing possible windfall. Missoulian.com.
Summary: "If the Montana University System gets a piece of the federal windfall coming to the state this year, it will be used to soften the blow of a big tuition increase faces by college students…"

Argetsinger, Amy. (2003 July 17). Demand May Outpace VA Public Colleges' Growth. Washingtonpost.com.
Summary: "Thousands of students could be shut out of Virginia's rapidly crowding public colleges before the decade ends because of funding and space limitations, according to a report released yesterday that calls on state lawmakers to increase higher education budgets."

Arizona Board of Regents. (2002). Changing Directions.
Summary: "In August 2002, the Regents launched a higher education reform initiative entitled, Changing Directions. This initiative is based upon the comprehensive review and revision of funding streams and management strategies to strengthen support of instructional, research and financial aid programs for the purpose of increasing student participation and learning, workforce preparation and economic development."

Arnone, Michael. (2003 August 15). Students Face Another Year of Big Tuition Increases in Many States. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
Summary: "Still struggling with flat economies, huge budget deficits, and ballooning college enrollments, many states significantly raised the cost of attending public colleges for the 2003-04 academic year. Double-digit percentage increases in tuition for the second straight year, by the largest margins ever at some institutions, were common across the country."

Arthur J. Gallagher & Co. "University of Wisconsin System Risk Management and Insurance Review." January 2004.
Summary: Review of UW System's risk management program and observations and recommendations on property and casualty insurance coverage and overall structure.

Argetsinger, Amy. (2003 June 28). Maryland Tuition On Its Way Up. Washingtonpost.com
Summary: "The Maryland Board of Regents yesterday disclosed a package of proposed tuition increases that would raised undergraduate charges by as much as 21 percent over last fall's rates, amid dissent and confusion over how public colleges should respond to Gov. Robert L. Ehrlich Jr.'s order for steep funding cuts."

Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges. (2003 April). Ten Public Policy Issues for Higher Education in 2003 and 2004."
Summary: Addresses the top public policy issues affecting public and independent colleges and universities.

Atkinson, Robert D. (2002 June). The 2002 State New Economy Index. Washington, D.C.: Progressive Policy Institute Technology and New Economy Project.
Summary: Atkinson analyzes each state by criteria (including number of knowledge jobs, globalization, economic dynamism and competition, transformation to a digital economy and technology innovation capacity) to determine ranking in the "new economy." Wisconsin ranks 40th overall.

Bai, Matt. (2003 June 8). Drip, Drip, Drip. New York Times.
Summary: The crises in the states are affecting all the governors nationwide and may ultimately affect thousands of families.

Bartindale, Becky. (2003 September 4). UC refunds hopefuls' money. Mercury News.
Summary: "With most campuses already filled for the academic year, the University of California is refunding application fees to about 1600 applicants for the winter quarter that it says it cannot afford to consider because of state funding shortfalls.

Bell, Tom. (2003 July 2). Community colleges buck tuition trend. Press Herald Online.
Summary: "Maine will freeze tuition at its community colleges for the next two years, at a time when budget shortfalls are forcing many states to raise tuition at public two-year colleges."

Benjamin, Roger and Stephen Caroll (1998). Breaking the Social Contract: The Fiscal Crisis in Higher Education. Commission on National Investment in Higher Education.
Summary: "(The) central finding is that the present course of higher education -- in which costs and demand are rising much faster than funding -- is unsustainable."

Benjamin, Roger and Stephen Carroll (1998). California Higher Education at the Brink (RAND/CAE-01-IP).
Summary: Rand review of "Breaking the Social Contract: The Fiscal Crisis in California Higher Education. Rising educational costs and growing population could shut out one of every three potential students from California's public colleges and universities by 2015.

Board of Trustees of the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities. (May 2000) Designing the Future Minnesota State Colleges and Universities Strategic Plan.
Summary: The plan addresses 2002-05, but also looks 10 - 20 years into the future to anticipate the programs and services needed to serve students, communities and the state.

Board of Trustees of the State University of New York. (1995 December 1). Rethinking SUNY.
Summary: Underlying Rethinking SUNY is the theme of increasing efficiency by empowering campuses to directly manage more of their academic and financial affairs and by eliminating current disincentives to the prudent use of campus and system resources.

Bok, Derek. (2003 May-June). The Purely Pragmatic University. Harvard Magazine.
Summary: Former president of Harvard examines the educational and institutional costs of "commercializing the academy."

Brill Wagner, Eileen. (2003 July 11). ASU positioning itself as player in global arena.
Summary: "With the opening of an Office of Pan-American Initiatives, ASU is gaining momentum in its efforts to establish partnerships in Latin America and eventually Canada, as well as assist with economic development efforts in Arizona."

Buntin, John. (2003 September). Setting Colleges Free. Governing.
Summary: "Higher ed wants to offer states a deal: Let us run things our own way, and then judge us by the result. Should states accept?"

Burdman, Pamela (2003 Spring). Colorado's "Grand Experiment": Voucher program could give the state's colleges and new lease on life (Vol. 11 No. 2), 1. National Crosstalk published by the National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education.
Summary: A discussion of Colorado's "college opportunity savings accounts" that enable more low-income students to attend college while allowing four-year universities the tuition increases they need.

Burke, Joseph C. and Henrik Minassians. (2002). Performance Reporting: The Preferred "No Cost" Accountability Program. The Sixth Annual Report. Albany, NY: The Nelson A. Rockefeller Institute of Government.
Summary: "The drive toward accountability for performance has swept the country. Performance reporting is clearly the preferred program. It has spread to nearly all of the states, while the number of states with performance budgeting and funding has declined slightly. Bad budgets have spurred interest in state capitals in performance reporting as a 'no cost' alternative to performance funding and budgeting."

Burress, Charles. (2003 June 15). Deficit imperils UC's mandate: New president may have to put a cap on enrollments. SFGate.com.
Summary: "The state's economic plight has become so dire that University of California officials say they are forced to think about the unthinkable -- breaking UC's long-standing pledge to admit all eligible students in the state."

Colleges in Crisis. (2003 April 28). BusinessWeek.
Summary: A national look at public and private universities and how they are using innovative ways to change the current business model.

Callan, Patrick M (Winter 2003). A Different Kind of Recession. National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education.
Summary: A summary of tuition and fees, income, state appropriations for higher education and state financial aid by state.

Carnevale, Anthony P. and Richard A. Fry (2003). Economics, Demography and the Future of Higher Education Policy.
Summary: Governors may influence their state's -- and the nation's -- long-run economic competitiveness and social equity by helping minority and low-income youth gain access to higher ed, helping campuses accommodate these students and finding ways to make the enterprise more affordable.

Carroll, William J. (2003 March/April). A Discordant Melody of Sameness. ACB, 13-17.
Summary: Challenges institutions to attend to changes beyond the higher education sector and to seek distinction and distinctiveness.

Chance, William. (2002 December). The Higher Education Coordinating Board and Higher Education Governance in Washington. New Olympia, WA: NORED.
Summary: The author suggests that the university enter into a compact with the state and that in exchange for steady appropriations, the university would perform.

Chance, William (2000 November). Steady Progress: Higher Education Governance in Colorado at the dawn of the 21st Century. Mount Olympia, WA: NORED.
Summary: An examination of the existing higher education governance structure in the State of Colorado, identificationWhat's the True Impact of State Budget Crises on Higher Ed? States and IHEs must initiate a dialogue that sets the stage for true reform. of areas of strengths to be expanded and weaknesses that may be eliminated or restructured, comparison of governance structures in other state that may result in recommendations to improve the delivery of higher education in Colorado and development of a final report.

Christal, Melodie E. (1998 April). State Survey on Performance Measures 1996-97. Denver, CO: State Higher Education Executive Officers.
Summary: Review of survey findings of state-level higher education coordinating and governing boards to determine the states' experiences with using performance measures.

Committee for Economic Development. (2003 May 19). Raising the Long-Term Standard of Living: The CED Perspective.
Summary: Growth, across time and across societies, inevitably is the product of three compelling factors -- invention (generating new ideas), investment (putting those ideas into practice), and social organization (allowing the full ramifications of those ideas to take effect).

Couturier, Lara. (2003 June 27). Balancing State Control with Society's Needs. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
Summary: "More public institutions are negotiating, or at least considering, new relationships with their states -- whether in the form of state enterprises, charters, contracts, or public-private hybrids." P. B20.

Cunningham, Alisa Federico and Thomas Parker. (1999 August). Defining Student Aid in an Era of Multiple Purposes. Washington, D.C.: The Institute for Higher Education Policy.
Summary: Since the 1980s, financial access has increased for many purposes: encouraging access and choice for qualified needy students; furthering persistence toward a degree; promoting affordability for lower- and middle-income students; rewarding student scholarship/merit; targeting specific groups and priorities; improving institutional financials and administrative accountability; managing institutional enrollment and redistributing state taxpayer revenue.

Distance learning's popularity takes a big jump. (2003 July 18). Cnn.com/education.
Summary: The number of adult professionals turning to distance education to receive degrees is increasing.

Davis, Jerry Sheehan. (2001 September). Designing a State Student Grant Program: A Framework for Policy-Makers. Indianapolis, IN: Lumina Foundation for Education.
Summary: This paper provides probable effects of improving or creating a state grant program and helps answer "Who should receive how much aid to attend which kinds of institutions for what purposes?"

Davis, Jerry Sheehan. (2003 May). Unintended Consequences of Tuition Discounting. Indianapolis, IN: Lumina Foundation for Education.
Summary: The author examines the impacts of tuition discounting, including unintentional reduction in student accessibility and affordability; impediments to improve student retention; and eventual fiscal danger.

Delli Santi, Angela. (2003 July 10). Tuition, fee hikes offset cuts to college funding. Newsday.com.
Summary: Tuition costs at New Jersey's public colleges and universities will rise by nine percent. The Legislature has vowed to restore $52 million in higher education aid in exchange.

Despeignes, Peronet. (2003 May 29). US States face long-term budget shortfalls. Financial Times.
Summary: Only 13 out of the 50 have a fiscally sustainable position, an analysis shows. Tax rises and spending cuts will result.

Dolence, Michael G. and Donald M. Norris (1985). Transforming Higher Education: A Vision for Learning in the 21st Century.
Summary: Society for College and University Planning. Suggests that higher education should be transformed from the Industrial Age to the Information Age and suggests components of that transformation.

Donnelly, Thomas R. Jr. Jerry Macathur Hultin and Stuart H. Rakoff, PhD (1998). The Revolution in Health Care and a Prognosis for Higher Education. Compiled in Reinventing the University: Managing and Financing Institutions of Higher Education PriceWaterhouseCoopers.
Summary: Education and training are becoming the key differentiators between those who live in relative wealth and those who live in poverty. Students will increasingly demand that higher education's claim of high quality be demonstrated by tangible evidence in the form of increased earning power and quality of life.

Governor Jim Doyle. (2003 September 10) "Grow Wisconsin."
Summary: Governor's plan to "create good paying jobs and a 'high end' economy."

Dyckman, Martin. (2003 June 15). Florida Semi-State University. St. Petersburg Times.
Summary: The Florida State Legislature ordered a study into a joint proposal by Florida State University and the University of Florida for a contractual status that would make them virtually autonomous.

Ehrenberg, Ronald G. (2003 March 29). Financing Higher Education Institutions in the 21st Century. Invited address prepared for the 2003 annual meeting of the American Educational Finance Association.
Summary: The author concludes that lack of state funding will drive public institutions to move towards higher tuition policies. Also, state and federal funding of financial aid is moving toward merit-based programs, not needs-based.

Ensslin, John. (2003 November 18). "If funds shrink, CU faces going private, chief says."
Summary: "If higher education continues to get squeezed between dwindling state funds and growing spending mandates, the University of Colorado may someday have to go private, CU President Elizabeth Hoffman said…"

Feyder, Susan. (2003 May 13). Pawlenty: Goal should be biotech leader in 10 years. Star Tribune.
Summary: Minnesota's Governor Tim Pawlenty said the state should commit itself to becoming a leader in biotechnology within 10 years and holding itself to measurable criteria.

Florida International University Board of Trustees.(2001). Florida International University Millennium Strategic Plan 2001-2010.
Summary: Outlines the goals to become a Top Urban Public Research University by utilizing the following strategic themes: international understanding; environment education and research; ties to Florida and local economic development; provision of health professionals for the community; appreciation for arts, culture and diversity and opportunities for learning.

Frahm, Robert. (2003 June 13). A Plea from Colleges: State System Wants Limit on Tuition, fee Increases Lifted. Hartford Courant.
Summary: "Under growing financial pressure, some officials of Connecticut's public college system argued . . . for more flexibility to set prices, including raising tuition and fees beyond the state's 15 percent limit."

Gabrick, Andrea. (2003 July/August). "Fair Market Value." Case Currents.
Summary: A conversation with higher education observers and advancement practitioners (including David Olien) on the view of higher education as a commodity.

Goldstein, Michael B (2000 September/October). To Be [For-Profit] or not to be: What is the Question? Change, 25-31.
Summary: Borrowing pages from technology and health-care spin-offs, we now see brand-name, new-name and no-name campuses alike are building for-profit enterprises to develop, market, distribute, and manage their online offerings.

Greene, Howard and Matthew. (2003 July). "Yes, Student Retention is an Admissions Issue." University Business.
Summary: "Attracting, admitting and enrolling qualified, interested, motivated and -- importantly -- appropriate students who understand the realities of your campus culture and its academic and social demands will give you your best odds for retaining happy and successful students through graduation."

Greenwald, Stephen. (2003) "The Challenge to the Traditional College by the For-Profit College." The University: International Expectations.
Summary: "The first section briefly sketches and seeks to explain the growth of the for-profit sector. The second suggests the major distinctions between it and traditional not-for-profits. The third lays out some of the challenges posed by the for-profits. The fourth addresses the continuing strengths of the not-for-profit sector, and the fifth proposes some changes."

Groen, Jeffrey. (2003 April 7). The Effect of College Location on Migration of College-Educated Labor. Ithaca, NY: Department of Labor Economics, Cornell University.
Summary: An investigation on the impact of attending college in a state on the probability of working in the state.

Guskin, Alan E. and Mary B. Marcy (2002 January 24). Creating a Vital Campus in a Climate of Restricted Resources: 10 Organizing Principles. The Project on the Future of Higher Education, Antioch University, Seattle, WA.
Summary: Presentation on how to increase student learning and maintain the quality of faculty work-life with fewer resources.

Hardy, Michael. (29 August 2003). Warner defends colleges; Cites benefits of out-of-state students. Richmond Times-Dispatch.
Summary: "(Governor Mark R. Warner) defended state colleges' enrollment of so many out-of-state students, a revenue-boosting practice that some complain denies admission of more Virginia students."

Harlow, Doug. (2003 July 2). Tech Colleges Reborn. Kennebec Journal Morning Sentinel.
Summary: "Maine joins 45 other state that have community college systems, programs which prepare students for the workplace with a two-year course of studies or for four-year degree programs at state and private colleges and universities."

Hayes Hunter, Elyse. (2003 July 2). Education can help close poverty gap. Deseret (Utah) News.
Summary: "College lessens the disparity between whites, minorities."

Hebel, Sarah. (2003 June 20). To Ease Budget Crunch, Public Universities Seek Freedom from State Controls. Chronicle of Higher Education.
Summary: "Faced with dwindling state appropriations . . . public universities sought more control over their financial affairs during this year's legislative session. The results were mixed, but with the budget outlook grim in many states, college administrators in Wisconsin and elsewhere are planning to push their own proposals to gain operating flexibility next year."

Hebel, Sarah (2003 September 19). Same Classroom, Different Price. Chronicle of Higher Education.
Summary: Public colleges and universities are seeking to increase their revenues, and assigning differing tuition rates may produce the extra revenue.

Hersh, Richard H. and Roger Benjamin (2001). Assessing the Quality of Student Learning: An Imperative for State Policy and Practice. RAND/Council for Aid to Education for the National Governors Association.
Summary: A value-added assessment of student learning is the missing but essential link needed to improve our understanding of the policy choices among access, productivity and quality.

Heyboer, Kelly. (2003 July 9). Raising tuitions by more than 9% would forfeit aid. NJ.com.
Summary: "Public four-year colleges must hold their tuition increases to 9 percent or below to received their full state funding, under a last-minute deal hammered out during last week's budget negotiations in Trenton."

Higdon, Leo I. Jr. (2003 May). University Business, 56.
Summary: States will have to tailor accountability measures to schools' unique missions, and the universities must pare down and focus on those missions.

Hong, Peter and Rebecca Trounson. (2003 July 17). Cal State, UC Back Steep Hikes in Fees. latimes.com.
Summary: "Faced with deep cuts in state funding, the California State University trustees approved a 30% fee increase of its students on Wednesday, while a key committee of the University of California Regents backed a boost of at least 25%."

Hovey, Harold (1999 July). State Spending for Higher Education. San Jose, CA: National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education.
Summary: An assessment of the outlook for state finances and for state support of higher education. "Despite the fact that 'the last five years have been about as good as it gets in state funding of higher education,' he finds that the fiscal circumstances of many states are likely to erode over the next few years."

Hughlett, Mike (2003 May 29). Brains, Brawn fuel Minnesota's rise. St. Paul Pioneer Press, 1e.
Summary: The investment that Minnesota made in higher education since 1950 is paying off; the state educates its citizens at a much higher rate than the national average.

The Institute for Higher Education Policy TIAA-CREF Institute. (2000 March). Higher Education Cost Measurement: Public policy issues, options, and strategies A Compilation of Background Papers Prepared for a Seminar on Cost Measurement and Management.
Summary: Goal of the seminar was to focus on the public policy dimensions of cost measurement.

Jackson, C. Grant. (2003 June 9). Lessons from South Carolina's Life Sciences Act Defeat? The State.
Summary: Four measures that could have helped move South Carolina toward a brighter economic future were killed by an obstructionist move in the final hours of the legislative session. The inability to pass the measures means South Carolina will fall further behind other states in the race to attract knowledge-based industries and raise the income of its citizens.

Jayson, Sharon. (2003 June 25). UT sees big jump in budget shortfall. Austin American-Statesman.
Summary: University of Texas officials are anticipating an $80 million budget gap over the next two years -- up $20 million from recent estimates.

Jerousek, Madelaine. (2003 September 12). Regents study varied tuition rate. Des Moines Register.
Summary: "Tuition rates could vary for Iowa public university students based on how many classes they take and their year in school under policy changes the Iowa Board of Regents will discuss next week."

Jerousek, Madelaine. (2003 June 13). Universities bear down on budgets. Des Moines Register.
Summary: Universities in Iowa will trim spending in a number of departments and raise faculty and staff salaries. Budgets for Iowa schools will be reexamined as the Iowa Board of Regents voted last fall to increase base tuition by 17.6.

Joint Committee to Develop a Master Plan for Education. (2002). The California Master Plan for Education.
Summary: This extensive document plans K-16 needs of the state and of families and students educated in the state of California. Detailed recommendations are provided.

Jones, Dennis (2003 February). Policy Alert: State Shortfalls Projected Throughout the Decade. The National Center for Public Policy and Higher Education.
Summary: States, and higher education in particular, are likely to face very tight budget conditions for the next decade.

Jones, Richard P. (2003 August 10). Many from Illinois are making Wisconsin their new home. Milwaukee Journal Sentinel.
Summary: People moving into state outnumber those exiting, census figures show.

Kane, Thomas and Pete Orszag. (2003 September). Funding Restrictions at Public Universities: Effects and Policy Implications. Brookings Institution Working Paper.
Summary: Examines the impact of lowered state support at public higher education institutions and expresses alarm and the decreased quality.

Kane, Thomas and Pete Orszag. (2003 September). Higher Education Spending: The Role of Medicaid and the Business Cycle. The Brookings Institutions Policy Brief #124. Brookings Institution: Washington, DC.
Summary: there is a long-term shift in state financing of higher education and it is expected to worse, due to higher Medicaid expenditures by the state.

Katsinas, Stephen, King Alexander and Ronald Opp. (2003). Preserving Access with Excellence: Financing for Rural Community Colleges. Rural Community College Initiative: Chapel Hill, NC.
Summary: Many of the 1.8 million adults attending rural community colleges have no other option for accessing higher education. Access and excellence are threatened by state and local policies.

Kettl, Donald F (2001) Creating a High-Performance Postsecondary Education. Paper presented at the meeting of the National Governors Association.
Summary: With a more diverse and competitive postsecondary education market, growing student demand, and tight state budgets, traditional colleges and universities will have no choice but to reinvent themselves.

Kirp, David and Patrick Roberts. (2002 Summer). Mr. Jefferson's "Private" College: The University of Virginia's Business School Secedes. The Public Interest, No 148
Summary: "This paper describes the path toward privatization of the business school at the University of Virginia.

Klein, Mike. (2003 June 16). Wisconsin Leaders Discuss Economic Development. Madison, WI: Wisconsin Technology Network.
Summary: National expert Dennis Donovan, director of global site selection for Wadley-Donovan, gives Wisconsin suggestions on how to attract corporations. Some problems cited by Donovan include: lack of workforce diversity, reputation for strong unions, high taxes and few tax incentives.

Kumar, Anita. (2003 July 18). College in '04? Cross your fingers: State university presidents say they will likely cap enrollment, which would make it harder for students to make the cut. St. Petersburg Times.
Summary: The presidents of Florida's public universities are considering capping student enrollment next fall, possibly at this year's levels.

Kumar, Anita. (2003, June 16). Your four years of college are up: Graduate or else. St. Petersburg Times.
Summary: A University of Florida policy was implemented to curtail career students -- and it appears to be working.

Levine, Arthur (2001). Privatization in Higher Education. Paper presented at the meeting of the National Governors Association.
Summary: Six forces are spurring the spread of privatization in higher education: the rise of an information-based economy, changes in demographics, an increase in public scrutiny, the advent of new technologies, the convergence of knowledge-based organizations, and a decline in public trust in government.

Locke, Michelle. (2003 July 2) California college heads warn of higher fees, lower enrollments. signonSanDiego.com.
Summary: "At the nine-campus University of California, system president Richard C. Atkinson said officials are looking at borrowing up to $40 million, raising student fees by up to 30 percent and considering enrollment reductions -- a highly unusual move -- for the 2004-05 year."

Lonetree, Anthony. (2003 July 17). MnSCU Students face 12.5% tuition hike. Minneapolis Star Tribune.
Summary: "The Board of Trustees for the Minnesota State Colleges and Universities system passed a 12.5 percent average tuition-and-fee increase for 2003-04, plus another 12/5 percent increase on top of that for 2004-05."

Lufkin, Ryan Sr. (2002). The Case for Operational Efficiency in Higher Education. Campus Pipeline.
Summary: Colleges and Universities must adopt measures to become more operationally efficient to successfully evolve into a 21st century entity.

Lumina Foundation for Education. (2003 April). Policies in Sync: Appropriations, Tuition and Financial Aid for Higher Education: A compilation of commissioned papers.
Summary: Each paper examines a different aspect -- a conceptual framework, governance, data as a tool to integrate policy, and what states need to know to design integrated policies -- all of which are critical to this alignment.

President Katharine C. Lyall presentation on Governor Jim Doyle's proposed budget to the Board of Regents to the University of Wisconsin System, March, 2003.
Summary: Analysis of the spending by the State of Wisconsin and the decline of state support for higher education.

MacGillis, Alex. (2003, June 11). Colleges seek least painful options. Baltimore Sun.
Summary: The University System of Maryland will likely need hundreds of layoffs and a tuition increase higher than the 14 percent already planned for this fall to absorb an impending $50 million budget cut.

Martinez, Julia and Dave Curtin. (2003 September 11). "College funding option gains." Denver Post.
Summary: "All of Colorado's public colleges and universities would be brought into a new funding scheme that would allow greater flexibility to raise tuition and pay for their own programs, under a plan that won widespread conceptual support…."

Massachusetts College of Art. (2003). A New Partnership with the Commonwealth.
Summary: MassArt suggests creating a relationship with the state to create more efficiency and accountability in exchange for more state funding.

Maxwell, Lesli. (2003 July 14). College tuition likely to jump. Sacbee.com.
Summary: "Students brace for a 30 percent increase that CSU and UC officials say they'll approve."

Maxwell, Lesli. (2003 July 31). UC and CSU raise prices, cut programs. Sacbee.com.
Summary: To help fix California's $38.2 billion budget shortfall, university officials announced that college prices will rise and at CSU, as many as 30,000 students may not be admitted in the next academic year.

Mayers, Jeff. (2003 July 22). Mark Bugher: Research Park Expansion Helping Create 'Critical Mass' of Midwest Biotech. Wispolitics.com.
Summary: UW Research Park Director Mark Bugher discusses bringing more biotechnology to the Midwest and to Madison.

Mendenhall, Robert W (2001). Technology: Creating New Models in Higher Education. Paper presented at the meeting of the National Governors Association.
Summary: "Technology will greatly expand access to higher education and fundamentally change the models of education with which we are familiar. In particular, technology will enable education that is learner-centric, individualized and interactive, making education far more relevant to the needs of individuals."

Midwestern Higher Education Commission. (2003). Measuring Up 2002: A National Report Card.
Summary: A report card on performance of Midwestern states on higher education.

Minnesota Public Radio. (Aired May 19 - 27, 2003). The Ivory Tower in the Real World: Higher Ed. in a Down Economy. Marketplace Series.
Summary: This weeklong series focuses on major changes taking place on campuses around the country as public and private institutions face tough economic times. Within this harsh, new economic reality, affordability is in jeopardy for college-age Americans, creating new inequities for private institutions, forcing some public school to privatize to compete, eroding the system of tenure, and spurring innovative ways to get students through the door to shore up the bottom line.

Missouri Department of Higher Education. (2003 July). "MO Higher Education prioritizes quality and performance improvement goals."
Summary: Higher education commissions identified quality and performance goals in six areas -- affordability, benefits, learning, under-served groups, quality and performance excellence, and workforce development.

National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges.. (2003) Changes in Annual Tuition and Fee Charges at NASULGC Institutions Academic Year 2003-04.
Summary: State by state analysis of tuition charges, based on in-state, full-time students.

National Association of State Universities and Land Grant Colleges.(1997 December). Value Added: The Economic Impact of Public Universities.
Summary: An analysis of NASULGC members' economic impact on its state and local economy.

NCHEMS News. (2003 May). Boulder, CO: National Center for Higher Education Management Systems.
Summary: Figure 3 is a comparison of states' ability to produce graduates vs. ability to keep and attract graduates. Figure 4 describes the student pipeline sources.

National Conference of State Legislatures. State Budget and Tax Actions 2003.
Summary: A preliminary report on the budget actions of states.

Newbart, Dave (2003 May 28). Tuition rises sharply at state schools. Chicago Sun Times.
Summary: Though the cost of living is holding steady, double-digit tuition hikes will be the norm next year at Illinois' public universities.

Newman, Frank. (2000 September). "Saving Higher Education's Soul." The Futures Project: Policy for Higher Education in a Changing World.
Summary: Changes to higher education funding and structure are moving institutions to a less stable environment. "The nature of the higher education system of the future depends on how skillfully the new market forces are used and contained."

Newman, Frank. (2000 October). "The Universal Impact of Competition and Globalization in Higher Education." The Futures Project: Policy for Higher Education in a Changing World.
Summary: "It was a startling discovery, given the broad diversity of higher education systems around the world, to learn that institutions everywhere are confronting many of the same challenges, placing them all in a similar state of transition."

Newman, Frank and Jamie Scurry. (2001 June). "Higher Education in the Digital Rapids." The Futures Project: Policy for Higher Education in a Changing World.
Summary: "Skillful leadership will be needed to help faculty and administrators cope with change and move forward" with strategies to work with technology and its impact on pedagogy.

Newman, Frank and Lara Couturier. (2001 June). "The New Competitive Arena: Market Forces Invade the Academy." The Futures Project: Policy for Higher Education in a Changing World.
Summary: "For the first time in any of our memories, higher education is undergoing a transformation powerful enough to change the basic way universities and colleges operate."

Newman, Frank. (2001 February). Draft "A New Challenge for Higher Education Policy: Channeling the Power of Market Forces to Achieve a New Vision for Higher Education." The Futures Project: Policy for Higher Education in a Changing World.

Northwest Education Research Center. (2001 November). "A New Horizon." Kansas Postsecondary Education Planning Study: A Report for the Kansas Board of Regents."
Summary: Reviews the four sectors of public postsecondary education (technical institutions, community colleges, state universities and Washburn University).

Northstar Economics, Inc. (2002 September 12) Economic Impact of the University of Wisconsin System.

Olien, David. "Board of Regents 'Future Study' Proposals: Issues Concerning Distance Education and Advancement." DRAFT

Olien, David W. (2003). "Back to Earth: Expectations for Using Technology to Improve the University Experience." The University: International Expectations.
Summary: "Some observers have suggested that traditional universities will in the new century give way to virtual universities located in cyberspace. I do not see such an extreme change occurring…Still, we should aim neither too high, with out-of-this-world expectations about what the new technology can accomplish, or so low that we miss an opportunity to improve education.

Oregon State Board of Higher Education (October 18, 2002). Planning Framework Developed by the Strategic Planning Work Group: Report to the Board Committee of the System Strategic Planning.
Summary: Hold tuition and education fees to not more than the state support for resident undergraduates, and accompanying tuition increases with a financial aid set-aside for the neediest students.

Paquette, Carole. (2003, June 15). Farmingdale Campus Gets a $133 Million Upgrade. New York Times.
Summary: Over the past two decades, this two-year agricultural school has transformed itself into a four-year high-technology and bioscience research university.

Paul, Jim. (2003 June 29). Universities prepare for new tuition guarantees. Associated Press Newswires.
Summary: Officials at public universities in Illinois are preparing for four-year guaranteed tuition.

Postsecondary Education OPPORTUNITY. (2003 July). "College Participation Rates by State for Students from Low Income Families 1992 to 2001."
Summary: College participation rates for all families and low income families increased in the mid-90s and have declined through the end of the 90s into the new millennium.

Postsecondary Education OPPORTUNITY. (2002 February) Educational Attainment and State Economic Welfare 1989-2000 (Number 116).
Summary: An examination of the relationships between two measures of education attainment -- high school graduation and college graduation -- with five measures of economic welfare: per capital personal income, median household income, poverty rate, unemployment rate and employed/population ratio.

Postsecondary Education Opportunity. (2003 September). "Family Income and Higher Educational Opportunity 1970 to 2001."
Summary: "Who gets a bachelor's degree from college by age 24 is largely determined at birth. Children born into affluent families have more than 11 times greater chance of earning a bachelor's degree by age 24 than do children born into poor families."

Postsecondary Education OPPORTUNITY. (2003 August). "Freshman-to-Sophomore Persistence Rates by Institutional Control, Level and Academic Selectivitiy 1983 to 2003."
Summary: "Over the last two decades the rate at which freshmen have persisted to their sophomore years of college have declined slightly."

Postsecondary Education OPPORTUNITY. (2003 May). "A Nation at Risk, Again."
Summary: College participation rates are now broadly declining in the United States.

Postsecondary Education OPPORTUNITY. (2002 December). State Investment Effort in Higher Education FY 1962 to FY 2003 (Number 126).
Summary: Describes the continued reductions in state support since the economic recessions of the 1980s and early 1990s.

Postsecondary Education OPPORTUNITY. (2003 April). "Interstate Migration and Geographic Mobility of College Graduates 1977 to 2000."
Summary: "Young college graduates are highly geographically mobile in the decade after graduation….The geographically mobility of college students and graduates has very important economic implications for state policy makers."

Potter, Will. (2003 August 8). State Lawmakers Again Cut Higher-Education Spending. The Chronicle of Higher Education.
Summary: State Appropriations for higher education continue to decline, leading colleges and universities to increase tuition, restructure programs and layoff staff and faculty.

Prah, Pamela. (2003 July 28). Tuition spikes while financial aid falters. Stateline.org.
Summary: More than half the states cut higher education funding for the 2003-2004 school year.

Price, Derek V (2002 September 3). What We Know About Access and Success in Postsecondary Education: Informing Lumina Foundation's Strategic Direction.
Summary: Higher education improves the quality of life by providing long-term economic gains, better health and increased civic participation. However, many students face difficulties in pursuing higher education. Lumina Foundation has surveyed the existing research in an attempt to assess these difficulties. This white paper documents the extent to which inequity is present across four dimensions of postsecondary access and success - preparation, awareness, financial issues and institutional responsibility.

Price, Jenny. (2003 August 6). Illinois Residents moving to Wisconsin. Wisconsin State Journal.
Summary: "Expert says that many of the …people who moved to Wisconsin from Illinois from 1995 to 2000 were probably returning home."

Reed, Charles B. (March/April 2003). Roll With the Economy's Punches, Emerge With a Sturdy Plan. Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 5.
Summary: Instead of playing victim, public institutions will need to plan to do more with less for quite some time.

Reindl, Travis. (2003 July 10). "Throwing Out the Playbook: Higher Education and the New Policy Environment." Presentation to the UW System Board of Regents.
Summary: Higher education entities no longer can rely on state funding to operate and this seems to be the wave of the future. Other states are looking to changes in policy and practice.

Rivedal, Karen. (2003 June 18). Lyall discusses making UW System partly private. Madison.com.
Summary: University of Wisconsin System President Katharine Lyall told members of Madison's Downtown Rotary Club Wednesday that a restructured System -- part public, part private -- may be one way out of the System's nagging money woes.

Rivedal, Karen. (2003 July 10). Tuition for UW raised 16.7 - 18.7%. Madison.com.
Summary: "The UW Board of Regents made it official Thursday, voting to raise resident undergraduate tuition by 16.7 percent to 18.7 percent for the next academic year throughout the University of Wisconsin System.

Rivedal, Karen. (2003 September 14). "Overhauling the System: With the State Paying a Smaller Share of the UW System Budget, Officials Search for New Ways to Fund Public Higher Education."
Summary: ""The University of Wisconsin System has started classes this fall under the shadow of record-breaking budget problems."

Rombeck, Terry. (2003 June 26). Kansas college funding lagging. Lawrence Journal-World.
Summary: "A study released Wednesday shows Kansas is second to last among state with Big 12 schools when it comes to contributing to higher education and the gap is widening. That means students or their parents are footing more of the bill over time. Regents today are expected to approve a 17 percent tuition increase at KU, the second big increase in a five-year plan to double tuition by 2007."

Rowley, Daniel James; Herman D. Lujan; Michael G. Dolence. (1997). Strategic change in colleges and universities: planning to survive and prosper. San Franciso, CA; Jossey-Bass.
Summary: A study of the attempts at strategic change in higher education and examination of the strategic planning process from several perspectives.

Rowley, Daniel James; Herman D. Lujan; Michael G. Dolence. (1998). Strategic choices for the academy: How demand for lifelong learning will re-create higher education. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass Publishers.
Summary: This book documents the forces pushing for radical changes in the delivery of education opportunities and examines the steps taken by a range of institutions to effectuate change.

Russell, Jenna. (2003 June 15). UMass bracing for cuts. Boston Globe.
Summary: State university system's chancellors weigh losses in staff, sports, services.

Desperate Measures. (2003 April 14). St. Petersburg Times.
Summary: Florida State University and University of Florida are presenting a five-year agreement with each university that will require the state to provide a certain amount of financial support each year in return for an agreed-upon level of performance.

Schmidt, Peter. (2003 July 7) Big Troubles Loom for Florida's Public Colleges. Chronicle of Higher Education.
Summary: Florida lawmakers didn't centralize the governance of the public universities in the Board of Governors. "What may be worse, the Legislature did little this year to rescue public colleges and student-aid programs from projected fiscal crises.

Sexton, Steve. (2003 July 25). UC Eyes Surcharge for Rich Students. The Washington Times.
Summary: "California's premier university system is considering charging rich students more tuition to offset deep funding cuts resulting from the state's $38 billion budget deficit."

Shakeel, Farhan. (2003 July 23). Oklahoma rethinking tuition dereg. The Daily Texan.
Summary: Oklahoma legislators are rethinking the decision to allow the OU Board of Regents to set tuition.

The Sloan Consortium. (2003). "Sizing the Opportunity: The Quality and Extent of Online Education in the United States, 2002 and 2003."
Summary: Institutions surveyed offer some online courses or degree programs and intend on utilizing online technology in long-term plans for course delivery to students.

Smetanka, Mary Jane. (2003 July 22). From 87 to 18: U extension cuts decided. Star Tribune.
Summary: "The University of Minnesota Extension Service will shrink from 87 county offices that have existed for almost a century to 18 regional offices beginning next year. . ."

State Master/Strategic Plans for Postsecondary Education. (2001 December). Denver, CO: Education Commission of the States.
Summary: "State master/strategic plans for postsecondary education frame a state's goals for postsecondary education policy and outline the steps necessary to achieve these goals. Since 1996, 31 states have updated or written new master/strategic plans for postsecondary education; 15 of these master/strategic plans were written in 2000." This document is a table of the states that are participating/have participated in the writing of these plans.

State of Wisconsin Department of Economic Development (2001). State of Wisconsin Data Tables: State Comparisons.
Summary: Comparisons of Wisconsin to other states based on 2000 census data.

State of Wisconsin Legislative Audit Bureau (1986). A Management Audit of the University of Wisconsin System Administration (86-35). Madison, WI

Stern, Seth. (2003 August 26). The Unkindest Cuts. The Christian Science Monitor.
Summary: State budget crises are forcing public colleges to make hard choices about what to cut. A close-up look at how one university system wielded its ax.

Taft, Bob. (2002 October 15). Pioneering the Third Frontier of Knowledge and Innovation.
Summary: The Third Frontier Project is the state's largest -ever commitment to expanding Ohio's high-tech research capabilities and promoting start-up companies to build high-paying jobs for generations to come.

Thomas, Alice. (2003 July 5). College Oversight Increasing. Columbus Dispatch.
Summary: "Colleges across the country are facing a challenge that has reared its head above bleak state budgets: scrutiny."

Thomson, Susan. (2003 August 18). Here's why guys shun college. St. Louis Post-Dispatch.
Summary: "The slide of male students to the rear of the college class went largely unnoticed over the past two decades, amid concern about the educational needs of women. Only recently have researchers, authors and teachers begun to sound the alarm about what some see as a social time bomb in the making."

Torres, Kristina. (2003 June 17). State colleges seeking double-digit tuition increases. TwinCities.com.
Summary: "Anticipating a significant drop in state money over the next two years, the Minnesota Sate Colleges and Universities system this fall wants to raise tuition and fees by 12.2 percent for two-year colleges and 13.9 percent for four-year universities and already expects double-digit increases next year.

US Department of Commerce (2002 July 18). Census Bureau Report Show 'Big Payoff' from Educational Degrees.
Summary: A strong relationship exists between educational attainment and earnings.

US Census Bureau. (2003 August). "Educational Attainment: 2000."
Summary: The education levels of the United States population reached an all-time high, according to Census 2000."

University of California. (2001 September). Innovation and Prosperity at Risk: Investing in Graduate Education in California. Oakland, CA: University of California.
Summary: This publication promotes investment in graduate education, and as a result, improves California's economy.

University of Texas System. (2000 December). Service to Texas in the New Century: A Long Range Plan for the University of Texas System. Austin, TX: University of Texas System.
Summary: "Texas higher education faces significant current shortfalls in participation, success, academic excellence and research." The UT System suggests a number of policies and programs to address these problems.

Notes from the University of Wisconsin Board of Regents Listening Sessions, compiled by Secretary Judith Temby. March 13, 2003, Green Bay. March 25, 2003, Stevens Point. March 26, 2003, Waukesha.

University of Wisconsin System Regent Study Group (1986). The Future of the UW System. Madison, WI.

University of Wisconsin System Board of Regents (1995). Study of the UW System in the 21st Century.

UW System Administration Market Research. (2003 September). "Current and Projected Occupational Employment in Wisconsin 2000-2010.
Summary: Information on what kinds of jobs in Wisconsin are likely to need graduates with postsecondary degrees.

UW System Administration Office of Policy Analysis and Research, (2003 May). Accessibility of the UW System to Students from All Income Levels. Madison, WI.

University of Wisconsin System Administration, Office of Policy Analysis and Research. (2003 April). The Impact of a UW Education: Employment, Salaries and Residency Patterns of University of Wisconsin Graduates (Bulletin). Madison, WI: UW System Administration.

Vinh, Tan. (2003 September 5). UW to limit 2-year transfers from community colleges. Seattletimes.com.

Weaver, John. (1975 April 18). UW System President's Report in response to the Governor's Request on Reducing the Scope of the University of Wisconsin System.

Summary: "In a move that will further restrict access to the state's flagship public university, top community college graduates will no longer be guaranteed admission to the University of Washington.

Washington Higher Education Coordinating Board. (2003 December). 2003-04 Tuition and Fee Rates: A National Comparison.
Summary: Tuition and fee rates from around the country.

Wegenke, Rolf. (2003 July 14). Human Capital Policy Agenda. Policy Paper submitted to the Wisconsin Technology Council.
Summary: "Wisconsin is involved in a global economic competition. But this is not your father's economy. Success or failure will take place in the Knowledge Economy. The essential resource for success in the Knowledge Economy is a highly trained and educated workforce. Despite the high quality of Wisconsin's education "industry," the state is at a disadvantage and is threatened with a noncompetitive future. Rather than feel-good, marginal gestures, the Staet of Wisconsin needs a bold, scalable Human Capital Policy centered on investment in the Knowledge Economy. It's the people, smarty."

Wellman, Jane. (2002 December). Accounting for State Student Aid: How State Policy and Student Aid Connect. Washington, D.C.: The Institute for Higher Education Policy.
Summary: "This report focuses on two main issues in state student aid: 1) the ways that states are using state-funded student aid in the current funding climate, and 2) whether and how states are adapting their policies and accountability structures for state-funded aid." The report examines eleven states: California, Florida, Illinois, Minnesota, New Jersey, New York, Ohio, Texas, Pennsylvania, Vermont and Virginia.

Wellmann, Jane V (1999 July). Contributing to the Civic Good, Assessing and Accounting for the Civic Contributions of Higher Education. The New Millennium Project on Higher Education Costs, Pricing and Productivity.
Summary: Working Paper. An examination of how higher education serves the larger public good, focusing on how higher education assesses and accounts for its service to society.

Wellman, Jane V. (2001 January) Looking Back, Going Forward: The Carnegie Commission Tuition Policy. Washington, D.C.: The Institute for Higher Education Policy.
Summary: Tuition amounts at both public and private institutions are growing fast than inflation, and at public institutions, it is due to reduction in state spending. The costs will continue to rise because the market allows higher education to do so.

Wellman, Jane. (1999 February). The Tuition Puzzle: Putting the Pieces Together. Washington, D.C.: The Institute for Higher Education Policy.
Summary: "This report ties together data and information from numerous sources in order to help identify the pieces of the tuition puzzle in higher education. The goal of the report is to provide new insights into the causes and consequences of rising college prices, and to question whether rising prices are inevitable, or if something can be done about them.

Welsh, John. (2003 September 25). "Higher Education: Auditor urges tit-for-tat tuition fee." TwinCities.com.
Summary: "Wisconsin students coming to a public college or university in Minnesota often pay less in tuition than their in-state classmates-- sometimes much less…"

Whaley, Sean. (2003 July 24). Education, welfare programs big winners of tax increases. Reviewjournal.com.
Summary: Nevada taxpayers are paying extra sin taxes and live entertainment taxes to fund education and welfare.

White, Jason. (2003 July 23). More States Cut Spending To Balance Budgets. Stateline.org.
Summary: The majority of states facing budget deficits are cutting programs instead of raising taxes.

Wicker, Kristin. (2003 July 13). High-Tech Research: Groups get funding to commercialize nanotechnology. Dayton Business Journal.
Summary: Ohio Governor Bob Taft distributed $4 million to support area research and development project, most of them nanotechnology. It is part of the Third Frontier initiative designed to create high-tech, high-paying jobs and to help bridge the gap between research and industry in Ohio.

Wiley, John. (2003 November). "Higher Education at the crossroads." Madison.
Summary: UW-Madison Chancellor John Wiley sends a "wake-up call" to Wisconsin's citizens about the state of higher education and the economy.

Winter, Greg. (2003 August 25). Campus Cutbacks Hit the Classroom. New York Times.
Summary: "As state colleges trim classes, students struggle to finish."

Winter, Greg. (2003 June 13). Change in Aid Formula Shifts More Costs to Students. New York Times.Summary: Federal changes are expected to diminish the government's contribution to higher education by hundreds of millions of dollars starting in the fall of 2004.

Winter, Greg. (2003 July 18). "Tens of Thousands will Lose College Aid, Report Says." New York Times.
Summary: "The first report to document the impact of the government's new formula for financial aid has found that it will reduce the nation's largest grant program by $270 million and bar 84,000 college students from receiving any award at all."

Yudof, Mark G (2003 March/April). The Purgatory of the Public University. Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges, 8-12.
Summary: Declining state appropriates, rising demands for access, and steady pressures for new accountability have cast public higher education in a new light.

Zemsky, Robert. (2002 August 4). Frozen in Place: Higher Ed Faces Tough Times -- Again. University Business.
Summary: The author stresses the need for colleges and universities to reposition themselves to survive the latest financial crunch.

Zemsky, Robert (2003 May 30). Have We Lost the 'Public' in Higher Education? Chronicle of Higher Education.
Summary: The future holds more privatization of public institutions, more emphasis on higher education as a private good and less movement toward colleges as places of public discourse.